Kozuki, N., et al., The associations of birth intervals with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S3.
Background: Short and long birth intervals have previously been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes. However, much of the existing literature uses cross-sectional studies, from which deriving causal inference is complex. We examine the association between short/long birth intervals and adverse neonatal outcomes by calculating and meta-analyzing associations using original data from cohort studies conducted in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). These associations in the form of odds ratios and relative risk are used in list to link short-birth spacing intervals to increased risk of poor birth outcomes (small for gestational age and prematurity).