The Lives Saved Tool uses peer-reviewed information to build its models. This data comes from a variety of sources.

LiST Supplements

As part of the background work in the development of the Lives Saved Tool, three journal supplements have been published that contain articles related to the assumptions and structure of LiST. This work was done in conjunction with the Child Health Epidemiology Reference group (CHERG).

Background Articles by Topic

Estimates of intervention Efficacy and Effectiveness

The efficacy and effectiveness of the interventions in LiST have been quantified by various researchers in maternal, newborn, and child health.

Fulton, T.R., et al., Protective Effect of Contemporary Pertussis Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.  Clin Infect Dis, 2016. 62(9): p. 1100-10.

Pollard, S.L., et al., Estimating the Herd Immunity Effect of Rotavirus Vaccine. Vaccine, 2015. 33(32): p. 3795-800.

Kozuki, N., et al., The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis, BMC Public Health, 2013.  13 Suppl 3: p. S2.

Kozuki, N., et al., The associations of birth intervals with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S3.

Stover, J., et al., Changes in the distribution of high-risk births associated with changes in contraceptive prevalence, BMC Public Health, 2013 13 Suppl 3: p. S5

Kozuki, N., E. Sonneveldt, and N. Walker, Residual confounding explains the association between high parity and child mortality, BMC Public Health., 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S7.

Kozuki N, Walker N. Exploring the association between short/long preceding birth intervals and child mortality: using reference birth interval children of the same mother as comparison. BMC public health 2013; 13 Suppl 3: S6.

Bruce, N.G., et al., Control of household air pollution for child survival: estimates for intervention impacts, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S8.

Das, J.K., et al., Antibiotics for the treatment of Cholera, Shigella and Cryptosporidium in children, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S10.

Das, J.K. et al., Vaccines for the prevention of diarrhea due to cholera, shigella, ETEC and rotavirus, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S11.

Pollard, S.L., M. Mathai, and N. Walker, Estimating the impact of interventions on cause-specific maternal mortality: a Delphi approach, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13(3): p. 1-8.

Lassi, Z.S., et al., Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S13.

Nair, H., et al., An evaluation of the emerging vaccines against influenza in children, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S14.

Imdad, A., et al., The effect of umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine on omphalitis and neonatal mortality in community settings in developing countries: a meta-analysis, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S15.

Applegate, J.A., et al., Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S16.

Gaffey, M.F., et al., Dietary management of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S17.

Lamberti, L.M., et al., Breastfeeding for reducing the risk of pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children under two: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S18.

Sonneveldt, E., W. DeCormier Plosky and J. Stover, Linking high parity and maternal and child mortality: what is the impact of lower health services coverage among higher order births?, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S7.

Das, J.K., et al., The effect of antiemetics in childhood gastroenteritis, BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S9.

Davis, S., D. Feikin, and H.L. Johnson, The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood meningitis mortality: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S21.

Debes, A.K., et al., Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S19.

Haroon, S., et al., Breastfeeding promotion interventions and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S20.

Salam, R.A., et al., Effectiveness of Micronutrient Powders (MNP) in women and children. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S22.

Lenters, L.M., J.K. Das, and Z.A. Bhutta, Systematic review of strategies to increase use of oral rehydration solution at the household level. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S28.

Das, J.K., et al., Effect of community based interventions on childhood diarrhea and pneumonia: uptake of treatment modalities and impact on mortality. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S29.

Salam, R.A., et al., Emollient therapy for preterm newborn infants--evidence from the developing world. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S31.

Lenters, L.M., et al., Treatment of severe and moderate acute malnutrition in low- and middle-income settings: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi process. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S23.

Bhutta, Z.A., et al., Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost? Lancet, 2013. 381(9875): p. 1417-29.

Ishaque, S., et al., Effectiveness of interventions to screen and manage infections during pregnancy on reducing stillbirths: a review. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S3.

Imdad, A., M.Y. Yakoob, and Z.A. Bhutta, Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S25.

Thwing, J., T.P. Eisele, and R.W. Steketee, Protective efficacy of malaria case management and intermittent preventive treatment for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S14.

Imdad, A., et al., Screening and triage of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in general population and high risk pregnancies: a systematic review with a focus on reduction of IUGR related stillbirths. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S1.

Syed, M., et al., Effect of screening and management of diabetes during pregnancy on stillbirths. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S2.

Imdad, A., M.Y. Yakoob, and Z.A. Bhutta, The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S4.

Hussain, A.A., et al., Elective induction for pregnancies at or beyond 41 weeks of gestation and its impact on stillbirths: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S5.

Jabeen, M., et al., Impact of interventions to prevent and manage preeclampsia and eclampsia on stillbirths. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S6.

Yakoob, M.Y., et al., The effect of providing skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care in preventing stillbirths. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S7.

Ronsmans, C. and O. Campbell, Quantifying the fall in mortality associated with interventions related to hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S8.

Blencowe, H., et al., Lives Saved Tool supplement detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy to reduce syphilis related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. BMC Public Health, 2011.

Lee, A.C., et al., Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S10.

Blencowe, H., et al., Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health, 2011.

Lee, A.C., et al., Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S12.

Zaidi, A.K., et al., Effect of case management on neonatal mortality due to sepsis and pneumonia. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S13.

Lamberti, L.M., et al., Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S15.

Fischer Walker, C.L. and R.E. Black, Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S16.

Imdad, A. and Z.A. Bhutta, Effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S17.

Imdad, A., A. Jabeen, and Z.A. Bhutta, Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S18.

Haider, B.A., M.Y. Yakoob, and Z.A. Bhutta, Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S19.

Imdad, A., et al., Impact of vitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S20.

Yakoob, M.Y. and Z.A. Bhutta, Effect of routine iron supplementation with or without folic acid on anemia during pregnancy. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S21.

Imdad, A. and Z.A. Bhutta, Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S22.

Yakoob, M.Y., et al., Preventive zinc supplementation in developing countries: impact on mortality and morbidity due to diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S23.

Imdad, A., M.Y. Yakoob, and Z.A. Bhutta, Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates, with special focus on developing countries. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S24.

Webster, J., et al., An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S26.

Huda, T., et al., An evaluation of the emerging vaccines and immunotherapy against staphylococcal pneumonia in children. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S27.

Catto, A.G., et al., An evaluation of oxygen systems for treatment of childhood pneumonia. BMC Public Health, 2011.

Choudhuri, D., et al., An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S29.

Nair, H., et al., An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S30.

Higginson, D., et al., An evaluation of respiratory administration of measles vaccine for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children. BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S31.

Boschi-Pinto, C., M. Young, and R.E. Black, The Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group reviews of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce maternal, neonatal and child mortality. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i3-6.

Sudfeld, C.R., A.M. Navar, and N.A. Halsey, Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i48-55.

Munos, M.K., C.L. Walker, and R.E. Black, The effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhoea mortality. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i56-62.

Walker, C.L. and R.E. Black, Zinc for the treatment of diarrhoea: effect on diarrhoea morbidity, mortality and incidence of future episodes. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i63-9.

Munos, M.K., C.L. Walker, and R.E. Black, The effect of oral rehydration solution and recommended home fluids on diarrhoea mortality. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i75-87.

Traa, B.S., et al., Antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i70-4.

Blencowe, H., et al., Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i102-9.

Blencowe, H., et al., Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i110-21.

Mwansa-Kambafwile, J., et al., Antenatal steroids in preterm labour for the prevention of neonatal deaths due to complications of preterm birth. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i122-33.

Cousens, S., et al., Antibiotics for pre-term pre-labour rupture of membranes: prevention of neonatal deaths due to complications of pre-term birth and infection. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i134-43.

Lawn, J.E., et al., 'Kangaroo mother care' to prevent neonatal deaths due to preterm birth complications. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i144-54.

Theodoratou, E., et al., The effect of case management on childhood pneumonia mortality in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i155-71.

Eisele, T.P., D. Larsen, and R.W. Steketee, Protective efficacy of interventions for preventing malaria mortality in children in Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2010. 39(Suppl 1): p. i88-i101.

Cairncross, S., et al., Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i193-205.

Theodoratou, E., et al., The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia incidence, severe morbidity and mortality. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i172-85.

These studies compare mortality estimates from LiST have been compared to measured mortality rates from low- and middle-income countries to assess the accuracy and validity of the model.

Overview of LiST and the Modeling Approach

These papers outline the basic modeling approach used in LiST. They serve as references for those who are unacquainted with the model.

Stover, J., R. McKinnon, and B. Winfrey, Spectrum: a model platform for linking maternal and child survival interventions with AIDS, family planning and demographic projections. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i7-10.

Victora, C.G., Commentary: LiST: using epidemiology to guide child survival policymaking and programming. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i1-2.

Fox, M.J., et al., Assumptions and methods in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). BMC Public Health, 2011.

Winfrey, W., R. McKinnon, and J. Stover, Methods used in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). BMC Public Health, 2011. 11 Suppl 3: p. S32.

Fischer Walker, C.L. and N. Walker, The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) as a model for diarrhea mortality reduction. BMC Med, 2014. 12: p. 70.

Friberg, I.K. and N. Walker, Using the Lives Saved Tool as part of evaluations of community case management programs. J Glob Health, 2014. 4(2): p. 020412.

Walker, N., Y. Tam, and I.K. Friberg, Overview of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). BMC Public Health, 2013. 13 Suppl 3: p. S1.

Walker, N., et al., Standards for CHERG reviews of intervention effects on child survival. Int J Epidemiol, 2010. 39 Suppl 1: p. i21-31.

Technical Notes

Highlights of brief research papers that have not been published.

Featured News

Makerere University Centre of Excellence for Maternal and Newborn Health Research conducts LiST Training!

September 20, 2016 –  The Makerere University Centre of Excellence for Maternal and Newborn Health Research (CMNHR) conducted a three-day training at the Metropole Hotel, Kampala, Uganda.

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